Candy is a no-nonsense gal from Mongolia. She was the only student who watched & listened to me on the edge of her seat. That wasn't necessarily a good thing. She wasn't inclined to buy everything I was 'selling.' Turns out that's part of her Mongolian nature. She's Mongolian through-&-through which kept me on my toes ready to defend her several challenges. Her searching eyes and ready smile left a lasting impression. When she gave her presentation she wore her beautiful native costume.
I was struck by similarities I saw between the Mongolian culture and some of the Native American and Central American cultures I'm familiar with.
The Mongolians live mostly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. While some Mongolians have become urban dwellers, most still live in the countryside. Many engage in animal husbandry, while other are farmers. Diet consists of mutton and dairy products. And milk is often made into yoghurt and milk wine. The Mongolians enjoy music and poetry, and much of their culture relates to their past martial glory. During the annual Nadamu Fair, they compete in horse racing, archery, wrestling, as well as song and dance.
The caftan, hat, sash and boots form the indispensables of the Mongolian attire. The caftans come in various materials, ranging from leather to drapery. The caftan can also serve as a makeshift tent, a blanket, or a screen while its long and wide sleeves can be rolled down to protect from the sun, wind or rain. Women's sash is generally shorter and narrower than men's. In some places, married women war an embroidered silk vest instead of a sash. Men's sash is longer, folded into a broad band and is tightly tied around the waist. The sash also serves to stash the Mongolian knife and attach pouches. The hat has always been the most special item on a mongolian's attire. It is typically adorned with whatever trickiest the owner valued, or with pearls or even precious stones, if one could afford them, and with long, colorful tassels streaming down. A hat is worn when meeting or greeting non-family members, entering a ger (though one may be invited to remove the hat once inside), or when in the street. It is considered indecorous to go bareheaded.
For Mongolians on the pasture, their typical house is the ger (yurt), a domed round tent. the ger is of wooden lattice frame erected into a circle and secured with strips of rope, forming a head-high self-supporting cylinder. A door frame, roof poles and a canvas outer covering complete the set. For additional stability, a heavy weight is suspended from the center roof pole. Inside the ger is very spacious and well-ventilated. It is quickly dismantled, packed away and then transported by yak or camel to the next destination.
In the 16th century the Mongolians believe in Shamanism but turned to Lamaism in the Yuan Dynasty.
The Naadam Grassland Festival of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is Mongolian's most magnificent yearly entertainment event in China, combining the traditional "Three Manly Games" of Naadam: wrestling, horse racing, and archery, with cultural exhibits and even a livestock fair. It means "entertainment" in the mind of the typical Mongolian. The Naadam Grasslands Festival has a history that dates back to the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 AD). The Festival is held on the 4th day of the sixth month of the Chinese calendar (between July and August in the Gregorian calendar), when the harvest season reaches culmination. The Festival can last 3 to 10 days, depending on the scale of competitions of shooting, wrestling, and horse-riding.
The Mongolians are unconstrained and warm-hearted people as they treat others warmly and politely. They greet everyone they meet during their travels even they do not know each other. Hada, a Tibetan word, is a strip of silk used as a greeting gift among both Tibetans and Mongolians. It is presented under very specific circumstances only: when welcoming unfamiliar guests in one's home or when encountering a stranger on the steppe with whom a cordial relationship has developed. Hada is usually made from either silk or cotton. Mongolian Hada is generally white in color, but shades like light blue and light yellow occur as well. WHen one is lucky enough to be presented a Hada, one should grasp it gently in both hands while bowing slightly, and the presenter will also bow in return. The giving and receiving of Hada, including the act of bowing to each other, is a outward sign of mutual respect. When visitors go to a Mongolian's home, they will be treated very well by being given wine. But they must fully respect their host's customs such as: they will not step on the threshold, sit beside the niche of Buddha, or touch children's heads, etc. They admire fire and water so guests should not dry their feet or boots on the stove, nor should they wash or bathe in the river, as it is holy and clean in their eyes. In the Mongolian culture, colors are significant. At a Mongolian funeral, red and white should be avoided, whereas curing their festival, black and yellow should not be used. Passing the snuffbox is an old tradition in Mongolian culture, and is the most common exchange of amenities when people meet. When one is a guest in a Mongolian home, the host will take out his snuffbox, open it (its contents generally being try aromatic and consisting of a blend of tobacco and/or herbs) and pass it to the guest. One is expected to pass the snuffbox under one's nose in order to better appreciate the tobacco's aroma. To be polite, one should nod one's head or give another sign of appreciation. This shows respect and can serve as the basis for future amicable relations. The snuffbox contains a small spoon made other of gold, silver, copper, ivory or camel bone.